A licence endorsement is an extension or a limitation of the privileges granted and is entered in the pilot licence by the competent authorities of the EASA Member States.
What are the different types of licence endorsements?
The main groups of licence endorsements are:
- Class and Type Ratings
- Ratings (NIT, IR, Aerobatics, MOU, SP Towing, etc.)
- Language Proficiency
- Radio Telephony
- Instructor and Examiner Certificates
Class and Type Ratings
The privileges of the holder of a Class or Type rating are to act as a pilot on the class or type of aircraft specified in the rating.
EASA publishes a Type rating and licence endorsement list based on the outcome of the OSD assessment and thus assigns aircraft classes and types to different licence endorsements for pilot licensing.
Class Ratings are of great relevance for aeroplanes - especially SEP (land) and MEP (land) - which are by far the most widely used. Type ratings, on the other hand, apply only to a specific type and are for example required for piloting both larger aircraft and helicopters. The difference between Class and Type Ratings lies mainly in the requirements for their revalidation.
Also of importance here are the variants within a class or a type, which are entered in the logbook via Familiarisation and Difference Training.
While the Class and Type Ratings primarily regulate which types or classes of aircraft one may fly, the Ratings allow flying under certain conditions.
For example, in order to fly at night one must have a Night Rating; for aerial acrobatics one must have an Aerobatics Rating; for glider towing one must have a Sailplane Towing Rating, and so on.
For flying on instruments there is an IR Rating, which confirms the successful completion of theory training for flights under IFR, but which must always be supplemented with a valid extension of the corresponding Class or Type Rating in order to be allowed to fly under instrument rules. It is possible to have the general IR training and IFR endorsement for some but not all Class and Type Ratings held.
Pilots who are required to use radio communication may exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings only if they have an endorsement on their licence indicating language proficiency in English or in the language used for in-flight radio communication (and allowed by the authority in the respective airspace). The licence shall indicate the language level.
Instructor and Examiner Ratings
There are multiple types of main instructor ratings, including the well-known Flight Instructor FI, Type Rating Instructor TRI, Class Rating Instructor CRI and Instrument Rating Instructor IRI.
Instructors are allowed to train and prepare student pilots for specific licence endorsements. The actual examination in the form of a Skill Test, Proficiency Checks or Assessments of Competence are conducted and rated by an Examiner.
Examiner ratings are awarded by senior examiners.
Other types of licence endorsements
In addition to the main groups, there are various other endorsements:
- Theory and training
- Radio Telephony
- Limitations and restrictions
- Special entries such as national licence entries